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加爾各答市簡況

發布日期:2021年02月19日 來源:昆明市人民政府外事辦公室 【字體:

加爾各答

Kolkata


地理位置 Location

是印度西孟加拉邦首府,在胡格利河東岸,它是印度東部的商業、文化、教育中心。這座城市被廣泛認為是印度的“文化之都”,也被稱為“歡樂之城”。 2011年,城市人口達到4,500,000,城郊人口達到14,100,000,是印度人口第三大城市。

Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India. The city is widely regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, and is also nicknamed the "City of Joy". In 2011, the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the population of the city and its suburbs was 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India.


優勢產業 Competitive industries

加爾各答是印度東部和東北部的主要商業和金融中心,也是加爾各答證券交易所的所在地。加爾各答是許多由大型公共和私營企業經營的工業部門的所在地;主要行業包括鋼鐵、重型工程、采礦、礦產、水泥、制藥、食品加工、農業、電子、紡織品和黃麻。加爾各答是三大國有銀行的總部所在地:阿拉哈巴德銀行、UCO銀行和印度聯合銀行. 采用印度政府的“向東看”政策;開放位于印度和中國的邊界錫金的納撒拉山口,進行雙向國際貿易;東南亞國家在向印度市場擴張方面表現出的興趣,是讓加爾各答受益的因素。最近對加爾各答市區經濟的估計,從60億美元到1500億美元(按購買力平價調整的GDP),使其成為印度第三大生產城市,僅次于孟買和德里。

Kolkata is the main commercial and financial hub of East and North-East India and home to the Calcutta Stock Exchange. Kolkata is home to many industrial units operated by large public- and private-sector corporations; major sectors include steel, heavy engineering, mining, minerals, cement, pharmaceuticals, food processing, agriculture, electronics, textiles, and jute. Kolkata hosts the headquarters of three major public-sector banks: Allahabad Bank, UCO Bank, and the United Bank of India. Adoption of the "Look East" policy by the Indian government; opening of Sikkim's Nathu La mountain pass, which is located on the border between India and China, to bi-directional international trade; and the interest shown by Southeast Asian countries in expanding into Indian markets are factors that could benefit Kolkata. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion (GDP adjusted for purchasing power parity) making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi.


旅游資源 Tourism resources

加爾各答長期以其文學、藝術和革命遺產著稱,作為印度前首都,該城市是印度現代文學和藝術思想的誕生地。加爾各答對于文學藝術趨向于持有特別的欣賞口味,并有著歡迎新來天才的傳統,這使得它成為“狂野創造力之城”。加爾各答擁有許多哥特式建筑、巴洛克建筑、羅曼式建筑、東方式和印度-伊斯蘭建筑,經常被稱為“宮殿之城”,因為這里的殖民地建筑星羅棋布。殖民地時期的一些主要建筑保存完好,其中一些被宣布為“遺產建筑”,印度博物館是亞洲最古老的博物館,維多利亞紀念堂是加爾各答主要的觀光景點之一,印度國家圖書館是印度最好的公共圖書館,加爾各答美術學院和其他美術館都舉辦定期美術展覽。

Kolkata has long been known for its literary, artistic and revolutionary heritage as the former capital of India, the birthplace of Indian modern literature and artistic thought. Kolkata tends to hold a special taste for literature and art and has a tradition of welcoming new geniuses, making it a "city of wild creativity." Kolkata has many Gothic, Baroque, Romanesque, Eastern and Indo-Islamic buildings, often referred to as the "City of the Palace," because of the colonial architecture dotted here. Some of the major colonial-era buildings are preserved, some of which are declared "heritage buildings", the Indian Museum is Asia's oldest museum, the Victoria Memorial is one of Kolkata's major tourist attractions, and the National Library of India is India's best public The library, the Academy of Fine Arts in Calcutta, and other galleries hold regular art exhibitions.


歷史文化 History and culture

在17世紀晚期,加爾各答的三個村莊被孟加拉人統治。1690年,納瓦布公司授予東印度公司一個貿易許可證后,該地區被該公司發展為一個日益加強的貿易據點。1756年,印度執行長西拉杰·烏德·達烏拉占領了加爾各答,而東印度公司在次年重新奪回了它。1793年,東印度公司強大到足以廢除尼扎馬(當地的統治),并擁有該地區的完全主權。在公司統治下,以及后來的英國統治下,加爾各答一直是英屬領地的首都,直到1911年,它的地理劣勢,再加上孟加拉的民族主義,導致首都遷往新德里。加爾各答是印度獨立運動的中心;它仍然是當代國家政治的溫床。

1947年印度獨立后,曾是現代印度教育、科學、文化和政治中心的加爾各答遭受了數十年的經濟停滯。

In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into an increasingly fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, and the East India Company retook it the following year. In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat (local rule), and assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, and later under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement; it remains a hotbed of contemporary state politics. Following Indian independence in 1947, Kolkata, which was once the centre of modern Indian education, science, culture, and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation.


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